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西气东输三线【视频】- 为何闪亮的玻璃高楼对城市生活有害 TED演讲-TED正能量

发布时间: 2018-07-10 浏览: 368
【视频】| 为何闪亮的玻璃高楼对城市生活有害 TED演讲-TED正能量

Why glass towers are bad for city life — and what we need instead

TED简介:2017 |一个诡异的转变正在城市中间蔓延,建筑评判家贾斯汀·戴维森这样说道。无论是得克萨斯州的休斯顿还是中国的广州,被玻璃覆盖的钢筋混凝土高楼在日光下闪闪发光,却犹如入侵物种。当戴维森阐述建筑外观时雕龙刻凤 ,请大家重新思考自己的城市设计——当建筑师们抛弃了各种建筑材料时,我们又失去了什么。
演讲者:Justin Davidson贾斯汀·戴维森

Imagine that when you walked in here this evening,you discovered that everybody in the room looked almost exactly the same:ageless, raceless,generically good-looking.That person sitting right next to youmight have the most idiosyncratic inner life,but you don't have a cluebecause we're all wearing the same blank expression all the time.That is the kind of creepy transformation that is taking over cities,only it applies to buildings, not people.
Cities are full of roughness and shadow,texture and color.You can still find architectural surfaces of great individuality and characterin apartment buildings in Rigaand Yemen,social housing in Vienna,Hopi villages in Arizona,brownstones in New York,wooden houses in San Francisco.
These aren't palaces or cathedrals.These are just ordinary residencesexpressing the ordinary splendor of cities.And the reason they're like that is that the need for shelteris so bound up with the human desire for beauty.Their rough surfaces give us a touchable city.Right? Streets that you can readby running your fingers over brick and stone.
But that's getting harder to do,because cities are becoming smooth.New downtowns sprout towersthat are almost always made of concrete and steeland covered in glass.You can look at skylines all over the world --Houston,Guangzhou,Frankfurt --and you see the same army of high-gloss robotsmarching over the horizon.
Now, just think of everything we losewhen architects stop using the full range of available materials.When we reject granite and limestone and sandstoneand wood and copper and terra-cotta and brickand wattle and plaster,we simplify architectureand we impoverish cities.It's as if you reduced all of the world's cuisinesdown to airline food.
现在,让我们想想,当建筑师们,不再使用那么多可用的材料时,我们将失去的一切当我们抛弃了花岗岩、石灰岩、砂岩、木材、铜片、陶瓦和砖、篱枝或是石膏,我们简化了这些建筑,我们抛光了整个城市这就好比把世界各地的美食早春小老婆 ,简化成飞机餐。
Chicken or pasta?
But worse still,assemblies of glass towers like this one in Moscowsuggest a disdain for the civic and communal aspects of urban living.Right? Buildings like these are intended to enrich their owners and tenants,but not necessarily the lives of the rest of us,those of us who navigate the spaces between the buildings.And we expect to do so for free.
Shiny towers are an invasive speciesand they are choking our cities and killing off public space.We tend to think of a facade as being like makeup,a decorative layer applied at the end to a building that's effectively complete.But just because a facade is superficialdoesn't mean it's not also deep.
Let me give you an exampleof how a city's surfaces affect the way we live in it.When I visited Salamanca in Spain,I gravitated to the Plaza Mayorat all hours of the day.Early in the morning溧阳论坛网 , sunlight rakes the facades,sharpening shadows,and at night, lamplight segments the buildingsinto hundreds of distinct areas,balconies and windows and arcades,each one a separate pocket of visual activity.
我来举个例子看看,一个城市的外观是如何,=影响人们生活方式的吧,当我去拜访位于西班牙的萨拉曼卡的时候,我被那里的马约尔广场深深吸引,于是一整天都呆在了那儿。清晨,阳光撒向整个建筑留下清晰的阴影。到了傍晚时分,灯光将楼房分割成了,数百个截然不同的小区域,阳台二炮手演员表 ,窗户,还有走廊,都造就了各自独特的视觉区。
That detail and depth, that glamourgives the plaza a theatrical quality.It becomes a stage where the generations can meet.You have teenagers sprawling on the pavers,seniors monopolizing the benches,and real life starts to look like an opera set.The curtain goes up on Salamanca.
So just because I'm talking about the exteriors of buildings,not form, not function, not structure,even so those surfaces give texture to our lives,because buildings create the spaces around them,and those spaces can draw people inor push them away.And the difference often has to do with the quality of those exteriors.
好了,我们讨论的是一个建筑的外观,不是它的组成、功能或是结构,但仅仅就是这些外观,给我们的生活带来了触动梅海岭 ,因为建筑创新了周围的空间环境,这些空间环境可以吸引人们聚集其间或是将人们驱逐,而这些差距往往就是由建筑外观的质量决定的。
So one contemporary equivalent of the Plaza Mayor in Salamancais the Place de la Défense in Paris,a windswept, glass-walled open spacethat office workers hurry throughon the way from the metro to their cubiclesbut otherwise spend as little time in as possible.In the early 1980s, the architect Philip Johnsontried to recreate a gracious European plaza in Pittsburgh.
This is PPG Place,a half acre of open space encircled by commercial buildingsmade of mirrored glass.And he ornamented those buildings with metal trim and baysand Gothic turretswhich really pop on the skyline.But at ground level,the plaza feels like a black glass cage.I mean, sure, in summertimekids are running back and forth through the fountainand there's ice-skating in the winter,but it lacks the informality of a leisurely hangout.It's just not the sort of place you really want to just hang out and chat.
这就是PPG,Place(地点名称)。半英亩空地就这样,姚启凤 被由玻璃组成的,商业建筑包围着,他运用了金属镶边,间隔排架,还有哥特式的塔楼设计,这些使得整栋建筑确实冲破了天际线,但是从平地的角度来看,整个广场就好像一个黑色的玻璃笼子,我的意思是是的,在夏日的午后,孩子们还是会在喷泉的周围来回跑动,冬天还是会在这里滑冰,但是却少了这种娱乐的休闲与自在,这个广场的确不是那种,会让你想去聚会畅谈的地方。
Public spaces thrive or fail for many different reasons.Architecture is only one,but it's an important one.Some recent plazaslike Federation Square in Melbourneor Superkilen in Copenhagensucceed because they combine old and new,rough and smooth,neutral and bright colors,and because they don't rely excessively on glass.
Now, I'm not against glass.It's an ancient and versatile material.It's easy to manufacture and transportand install and replaceand clean.It comes in everything from enormous, ultraclear sheetsto translucent bricks.New coatings make it change moodin the shifting light.In expensive cities like New York, it has the magical powerof being able to multiply real estate values by allowing views,which is really the only commodity that developers have to offerto justify those surreal prices.
In the middle of the 19th century,with the construction of the Crystal Palace in London,glass leapt to the top of the list of quintessentially modern substances.By the mid-20th century,it had come to dominate the downtowns of some American cities,largely through some really spectacular office buildingslike Lever House in midtown Manhattan, designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.
Eventually, the technology advanced to the pointwhere architects could design structures so transparentthey practically disappear.And along the way,glass became the default material of the high-rise city,and there's a very powerful reason for that.Because as the world's populations converge on cities,the least fortunate pack into jerry-built shantytowns.But hundreds of millions of people need apartments and places to workin ever-larger buildings,so it makes economic sense to put up towersand wrap them in cheap and practical curtain walls.
But glass has a limited abilityto be expressive.This is a section of wall framing a plazain the pre-Hispanic city of Mitla, in southern Mexico.Those 2,000-year-old carvingsmake it clear that this was a place of high ritual significance.Today we look at those and we can see a historical and textural continuitybetween those carvings, the mountains all aroundand that church which is built on top of the ruinsusing stone plundered from the site.In nearby Oaxaca, even ordinary plaster buildingsbecome canvasses for bright colors, political muralsand sophisticated graphic arts.It's an intricate, communicative languagethat an epidemic of glass would simply wipe out.
The good news is that architects and developershave begun to rediscover the joys of texturewithout backing away from modernity.Some find innovative uses for old materials like brickand terra-cotta.Others invent new products like the molded panels that Sn?hetta usedto give the San Francisco Museum of Modern Artthat crinkly, sculptural quality.
好消息是,建筑师和开发商们,已经开始在不脱离现代化的基础上,重新发掘其他材质带来的乐趣,有一些人找到了比如,砖头或是赤陶瓦等旧材料的,新用途,还有一些人则是发掘了新的建材,比如Sn西气东输三线 ?hetta在旧金山现代艺术博物馆,外观建设中用到的模压板,使得博物馆看起来富有,皱巴巴的雕塑般的气质。
The architect Stefano Boeri even created living facades.This is his Vertical Forest武松卡盟 , a pair of apartment towers in Milan,whose most visible feature is greenery.And Boeri is designing a version of this for Nanjing in China.And imagine if green facades were as ubiquitous as glass oneshow much cleaner the air in Chinese cities would become.
But the truth is that these are mostly one-offs,boutique projects,not easily reproduced at a global scale.And that is the point.When you use materials that have a local significance,you prevent cities from all looking the same.Copper has a long history in New York --the Statue of Liberty,the crown of the Woolworth Building --but it fell out of fashion for a long timeuntil SHoP Architects used it to cover the American Copper Building,a pair of twisting towers on the East River.It's not even finishedand you can see the way sunset lights up that metallic facade,which will weather to green as it ages.
Buildings can be like people.Their faces broadcast their experience.And that's an important point,because when glass ages,you just replace it,and the building looks pretty much the same way it did beforeuntil eventually it's demolished.Almost all other materials have the abilityto absorb infusions of history and memory,and project it into the present.
楼房也可以和人一样,它们的脸上写满了沧桑,这是很重要的一点,因为当玻璃老化的时候,我们就会把它换掉,这样那些楼房看起来始终都是一个样子,直到最终销毁英语九百句 ,几乎所有的材料都有能力去,吸收并融纳历史和记忆,并把这些都呈现于当代。
The firm Enneadclad the Utah Natural History Museum in Salt Lake City in copper and zinc,ores that have been mined in the area for 150 yearsand that also camouflage the building against the ochre hillsso that you have a natural history museumthat reflects the region's natural history.And when the Chinese Pritzker Prize winner Wang Shuwas building a history museum in Ningbo,he didn't just create a wrapper for the past,he built memory right into the wallsby using brick and stones and shinglessalvaged from villages that had been demolished.
Ennead公司,用铜和锌包裹了位于盐湖城的,犹他自然历史博物馆,在这里,开采这些矿产的历史,已经有150年了,这也将这座建筑巧妙的,隐藏于了矿山之中,这样我们就拥有了一个真正反映了桐庐房产网 ,当地自然历史的自然历史博物馆,当中国建筑师王澍,(普利茨克奖获得者),在宁波建造一个历史博物馆的时候,他将从村庄废墟中,存留下来的砖石木瓦,加入到了外墙当中,他不仅仅是包装了历史,也以此将回忆注入了建筑当中。
Now, architects can use glassin equally lyrical and inventive ways.Here in New York, two buildings,one by Jean Nouvel and this one by Frank Gehryface off across West 19th Street,and the play of reflections that they toss back and forthis like a symphony in light.But when a city defaults to glassas it grows,it becomes a hall of mirrors,disquieting and cold.
现今的建筑师们可以用同样抒情九鼎记续集 ,而富有创造性的方式去使用玻璃,在这里,纽约,有两栋楼,一栋是Jean,Nouvel设计的,图中的这个则是Frank,Gehry的作品,它们面朝西十九大道,而它们所创造的光与影的前后交错,就如同光世界的交响曲,但当玻璃成为一个城市的默认材料,不断地被增加用量,城市就会变成巨大的镜厅,让人感到不安,冰冷。
After all, cities are places of concentrated varietywhere the world's cultures and languages and lifestylescome together and mingle.So rather than encase all that varietyand diversity in buildings of crushing sameness,we should have an architecture that honors the full range of the urban experience.
Thank you.(Applause)