当前位置:网站首页 > 全部文章 > 正文

西气东输三线【视频】- 为何闪亮的玻璃高楼对城市生活有害 TED演讲-TED正能量

发布时间: 2018-07-10 浏览: 129
【视频】| 为何闪亮的玻璃高楼对城市生活有害 TED演讲-TED正能量


Why glass towers are bad for city life — and what we need instead

TED简介:2017 |一个诡异的转变正在城市中间蔓延,建筑评判家贾斯汀·戴维森这样说道。无论是得克萨斯州的休斯顿还是中国的广州,被玻璃覆盖的钢筋混凝土高楼在日光下闪闪发光,却犹如入侵物种。当戴维森阐述建筑外观时雕龙刻凤 ,请大家重新思考自己的城市设计——当建筑师们抛弃了各种建筑材料时,我们又失去了什么。
演讲者:Justin Davidson贾斯汀·戴维森
片长:12:44

中英对照翻译
Imagine that when you walked in here this evening,you discovered that everybody in the room looked almost exactly the same:ageless, raceless,generically good-looking.That person sitting right next to youmight have the most idiosyncratic inner life,but you don't have a cluebecause we're all wearing the same blank expression all the time.That is the kind of creepy transformation that is taking over cities,only it applies to buildings, not people.
想象一下当你在今晚步入这里时,你发现所有在场的人,看上去几乎都一模一样,没有年龄和种族的区别,而且个个天生丽质。那个坐在你右手边的人,他的内心世界可能极其怪僻,而你却根本看不出来,因为我们始终都是同样面无表情,这就是正在城市中,发生着的诡异转变,只不过不是对公众,而是建筑。
Cities are full of roughness and shadow,texture and color.You can still find architectural surfaces of great individuality and characterin apartment buildings in Rigaand Yemen,social housing in Vienna,Hopi villages in Arizona,brownstones in New York,wooden houses in San Francisco.
城市中遍布粗糙与阴影邓志典,但也有和谐与色彩,你仍然能够在里加和也门这些地区的公寓楼房中,找到极具个性的外表设计。维也纳的社会住房、亚利桑那的霍皮村落、纽约的赤褐色砂石建筑、旧金山的木屋。
These aren't palaces or cathedrals.These are just ordinary residencesexpressing the ordinary splendor of cities.And the reason they're like that is that the need for shelteris so bound up with the human desire for beauty.Their rough surfaces give us a touchable city.Right? Streets that you can readby running your fingers over brick and stone.
它们既不是宫殿也不是大教堂,它们只是一些展现各自城市魅力的,普普通通的住宅房。这些房屋之所以会千奇百丽正是因为,人们生存本能中所附带的,对美(生活)的追求,那些粗糙的表面带给了我们一个触手可及的城市。当你的手指拂过街边的,一砖一瓦时,你仿佛走进了,小巷深处的记忆。
But that's getting harder to do,because cities are becoming smooth.New downtowns sprout towersthat are almost always made of concrete and steeland covered in glass.You can look at skylines all over the world --Houston,Guangzhou,Frankfurt --and you see the same army of high-gloss robotsmarching over the horizon.
但这样的机会已经越来越少了,因为城市正在变得光滑,高塔在市中心拔地而起,但却几乎全是有着被玻璃覆盖表面的,钢筋混凝土,看看世界各地的城市天际线吧——,休斯顿,广州,法兰克福,你会看见那些一模一样的高抛光机器人大军,正在水平面上前行。
Now, just think of everything we losewhen architects stop using the full range of available materials.When we reject granite and limestone and sandstoneand wood and copper and terra-cotta and brickand wattle and plaster,we simplify architectureand we impoverish cities.It's as if you reduced all of the world's cuisinesdown to airline food.
现在,让我们想想,当建筑师们,不再使用那么多可用的材料时,我们将失去的一切当我们抛弃了花岗岩、石灰岩、砂岩、木材、铜片、陶瓦和砖、篱枝或是石膏,我们简化了这些建筑,我们抛光了整个城市这就好比把世界各地的美食早春小老婆 ,简化成飞机餐。
Chicken or pasta?
鸡肉和通心粉二选一。
But worse still,assemblies of glass towers like this one in Moscowsuggest a disdain for the civic and communal aspects of urban living.Right? Buildings like these are intended to enrich their owners and tenants,but not necessarily the lives of the rest of us,those of us who navigate the spaces between the buildings.And we expect to do so for free.
但是更槽糕的是,那些像是在莫斯科的这种玻璃高楼的组合,其实暗含着一种对于城市社会生活的歧视,像这样的建筑都成为了,招揽开发商或是入驻公司的手段,而它们对于每天穿行其中的我们来说,却没有太多存在的意义。而我们正在自觉接受这样免费的存在。
Shiny towers are an invasive speciesand they are choking our cities and killing off public space.We tend to think of a facade as being like makeup,a decorative layer applied at the end to a building that's effectively complete.But just because a facade is superficialdoesn't mean it's not also deep.
亮晶晶的高塔是一种入侵物种,而它们的存在窒息了我们的城市,也碾压了我们的公共空间,我们趋向于把建筑的外表,当作被粉饰的门面,最后附上的装饰层,会让建筑看起来很完整,但是一个轻薄的外表,并不意味着建筑本身没有深度。
Let me give you an exampleof how a city's surfaces affect the way we live in it.When I visited Salamanca in Spain,I gravitated to the Plaza Mayorat all hours of the day.Early in the morning溧阳论坛网 , sunlight rakes the facades,sharpening shadows,and at night, lamplight segments the buildingsinto hundreds of distinct areas,balconies and windows and arcades,each one a separate pocket of visual activity.
我来举个例子看看,一个城市的外观是如何,=影响人们生活方式的吧,当我去拜访位于西班牙的萨拉曼卡的时候,我被那里的马约尔广场深深吸引,于是一整天都呆在了那儿。清晨,阳光撒向整个建筑留下清晰的阴影。到了傍晚时分,灯光将楼房分割成了,数百个截然不同的小区域,阳台二炮手演员表 ,窗户,还有走廊,都造就了各自独特的视觉区。
That detail and depth, that glamourgives the plaza a theatrical quality.It becomes a stage where the generations can meet.You have teenagers sprawling on the pavers,seniors monopolizing the benches,and real life starts to look like an opera set.The curtain goes up on Salamanca.
那些细节,深度和它所带来的魅力,赋予了整个广场以大剧场的视觉效果。它变成了一个,无论男女老少都可以邂逅的舞台,你会看见少年躺在路边,老年人垄断长椅,那真实的生活就像是,戏剧里所布景的那样,这就是关于萨拉曼卡的全貌。
So just because I'm talking about the exteriors of buildings,not form, not function, not structure,even so those surfaces give texture to our lives,because buildings create the spaces around them,and those spaces can draw people inor push them away.And the difference often has to do with the quality of those exteriors.
好了,我们讨论的是一个建筑的外观,不是它的组成、功能或是结构,但仅仅就是这些外观,给我们的生活带来了触动梅海岭 ,因为建筑创新了周围的空间环境,这些空间环境可以吸引人们聚集其间或是将人们驱逐,而这些差距往往就是由建筑外观的质量决定的。
So one contemporary equivalent of the Plaza Mayor in Salamancais the Place de la Défense in Paris,a windswept, glass-walled open spacethat office workers hurry throughon the way from the metro to their cubiclesbut otherwise spend as little time in as possible.In the early 1980s, the architect Philip Johnsontried to recreate a gracious European plaza in Pittsburgh.
说一个与萨拉曼卡的马约尔广场相较衡的现代广场,巴黎的协和广场,一个大风贯通,被玻璃墙围绕的开放空间。办公室白领会迅速从中通过,从地铁站直奔属于他们的办公室,除此之外,他们也会尽可能的,少花时间呆在里面。在上世纪80年代初期,一个叫做Philip,Johnson的建筑师,曾尝试在匹兹堡重塑一个优雅的欧式广场。
This is PPG Place,a half acre of open space encircled by commercial buildingsmade of mirrored glass.And he ornamented those buildings with metal trim and baysand Gothic turretswhich really pop on the skyline.But at ground level,the plaza feels like a black glass cage.I mean, sure, in summertimekids are running back and forth through the fountainand there's ice-skating in the winter,but it lacks the informality of a leisurely hangout.It's just not the sort of place you really want to just hang out and chat.
这就是PPG,Place(地点名称)。半英亩空地就这样,姚启凤 被由玻璃组成的,商业建筑包围着,他运用了金属镶边,间隔排架,还有哥特式的塔楼设计,这些使得整栋建筑确实冲破了天际线,但是从平地的角度来看,整个广场就好像一个黑色的玻璃笼子,我的意思是是的,在夏日的午后,孩子们还是会在喷泉的周围来回跑动,冬天还是会在这里滑冰,但是却少了这种娱乐的休闲与自在,这个广场的确不是那种,会让你想去聚会畅谈的地方。
Public spaces thrive or fail for many different reasons.Architecture is only one,but it's an important one.Some recent plazaslike Federation Square in Melbourneor Superkilen in Copenhagensucceed because they combine old and new,rough and smooth,neutral and bright colors,and because they don't rely excessively on glass.
这些公共空间的成功与失败取决于很多不同的原因,建筑虽然只是其中一方面,但却也是极其重要的一方面。一些最近新建的广场,比如墨尔本的联邦广场,或是哥本哈根的Superkilen线性公园,它们的成功源于它们结合了古朴与新潮,粗糙与光滑,色彩的中性与明亮,并且它们没有过分依赖玻璃。
Now, I'm not against glass.It's an ancient and versatile material.It's easy to manufacture and transportand install and replaceand clean.It comes in everything from enormous, ultraclear sheetsto translucent bricks.New coatings make it change moodin the shifting light.In expensive cities like New York, it has the magical powerof being able to multiply real estate values by allowing views,which is really the only commodity that developers have to offerto justify those surreal prices.
我并不是反对使用玻璃,玻璃毕竟是一种古老且通用性强的材料,它们易于大量生产、运输、安装、替换和清洁,无论是巨大的超洁净面板,还是简单的透明砖,都有玻璃的存在,新式涂层能够让它们在光照的变化中,变换色调。在像纽约这样的高消费城市,玻璃拥有神奇的能力,通过扩大视觉空间使房地产价格轻松翻倍,而玻璃也是开发商唯一能够用来对离奇高的地产价格做出解释的理由。
In the middle of the 19th century,with the construction of the Crystal Palace in London,glass leapt to the top of the list of quintessentially modern substances.By the mid-20th century,it had come to dominate the downtowns of some American cities,largely through some really spectacular office buildingslike Lever House in midtown Manhattan, designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill.
在19世纪中期,伴随着伦敦水晶宫的建成,玻璃一跃到了,标准现代化材料清单的榜首,到了20世纪中期,玻璃主要通过这些壮观的写字楼,主导了美国部分城市的市中心,像是在曼哈顿的由Skidmore,Owings,和Merrill三人设计的利华大厦。
Eventually, the technology advanced to the pointwhere architects could design structures so transparentthey practically disappear.And along the way,glass became the default material of the high-rise city,and there's a very powerful reason for that.Because as the world's populations converge on cities,the least fortunate pack into jerry-built shantytowns.But hundreds of millions of people need apartments and places to workin ever-larger buildings,so it makes economic sense to put up towersand wrap them in cheap and practical curtain walls.
直到最后科技进步到达了一种,使建筑师们能够让设计结构透明到,看不见的地步,在这个过程中玻璃成为了高楼耸立的,城市中的默认材料,其实这些改变的背后有着强大的理由来支持。因为世界人口都聚集于城市之中,最穷的那批人会住进,偷工减料建造的棚户区当中,而数以亿计的人,还是会需要越来越高大的,公寓和办公楼,所以从经济角度考虑,建立高塔并用便宜且实用的博德大世界,玻璃帘幕作为墙壁的举措,是完全合理的。
But glass has a limited abilityto be expressive.This is a section of wall framing a plazain the pre-Hispanic city of Mitla, in southern Mexico.Those 2,000-year-old carvingsmake it clear that this was a place of high ritual significance.Today we look at those and we can see a historical and textural continuitybetween those carvings, the mountains all aroundand that church which is built on top of the ruinsusing stone plundered from the site.In nearby Oaxaca, even ordinary plaster buildingsbecome canvasses for bright colors, political muralsand sophisticated graphic arts.It's an intricate, communicative languagethat an epidemic of glass would simply wipe out.
但是玻璃的表现力毕竟是有局限的。这是在墨西哥南部,前西班牙城米特拉一个广场外墙的一部分,这些历经2000年的雕纹,让这里看起来充满了宗教仪式气息。现今,当我们看向这些建筑,我们能够清晰地感受到四周的山脉和取材于当地的石材并建造于废墟之上的教堂之间,为历史与构造留存的一脉相承的连续性。在附近的瓦哈卡,即使是普通的石膏建筑,也会成为丰富多姿的,色彩表达,政治壁画,或是复杂精美的图案艺术的画布,这些错综复杂的,具有交流性的语言,会因玻璃的盛行而被轻松抹杀。
The good news is that architects and developershave begun to rediscover the joys of texturewithout backing away from modernity.Some find innovative uses for old materials like brickand terra-cotta.Others invent new products like the molded panels that Sn?hetta usedto give the San Francisco Museum of Modern Artthat crinkly, sculptural quality.
好消息是,建筑师和开发商们,已经开始在不脱离现代化的基础上,重新发掘其他材质带来的乐趣,有一些人找到了比如,砖头或是赤陶瓦等旧材料的,新用途,还有一些人则是发掘了新的建材,比如Sn西气东输三线 ?hetta在旧金山现代艺术博物馆,外观建设中用到的模压板,使得博物馆看起来富有,皱巴巴的雕塑般的气质。
The architect Stefano Boeri even created living facades.This is his Vertical Forest武松卡盟 , a pair of apartment towers in Milan,whose most visible feature is greenery.And Boeri is designing a version of this for Nanjing in China.And imagine if green facades were as ubiquitous as glass oneshow much cleaner the air in Chinese cities would become.
建筑师Stefano,Boeri甚至,创造了这种活着的表面纹理,这是“垂直丛林”,在米兰的一对公寓高楼,它们最显眼的特征便是那外表的绿色,Boeri正在为中国南京,设计一个类似的版本。想象一下,如果这种绿色外观能够和玻璃一样普及的话,那么中国城市的空气质量,将会得到多么大的改善啊。
But the truth is that these are mostly one-offs,boutique projects,not easily reproduced at a global scale.And that is the point.When you use materials that have a local significance,you prevent cities from all looking the same.Copper has a long history in New York --the Statue of Liberty,the crown of the Woolworth Building --but it fell out of fashion for a long timeuntil SHoP Architects used it to cover the American Copper Building,a pair of twisting towers on the East River.It's not even finishedand you can see the way sunset lights up that metallic facade,which will weather to green as it ages.
但事实是这些往往都只是个例,精品工程没办法轻易的在全球范围内普及,但这也就是它的意义所在。当你去使用这些具有地方特色的建材时,就能够避免城市外观趋于一致。在纽约,铜的运用已有很长的历史了自由女神像和伍尔沃思大厦的楼顶都是如此。但是它已经脱离时尚界多年,直到SHoP建筑师们在建造,东河岸的一对扭曲塔楼American,Copper,Building时,再次使用了它,它还没有完工,但你仍能够从夕阳中,看到那耀眼的金属光泽,知道它们会随着时间风化成绿色。
Buildings can be like people.Their faces broadcast their experience.And that's an important point,because when glass ages,you just replace it,and the building looks pretty much the same way it did beforeuntil eventually it's demolished.Almost all other materials have the abilityto absorb infusions of history and memory,and project it into the present.
楼房也可以和人一样,它们的脸上写满了沧桑,这是很重要的一点,因为当玻璃老化的时候,我们就会把它换掉,这样那些楼房看起来始终都是一个样子,直到最终销毁英语九百句 ,几乎所有的材料都有能力去,吸收并融纳历史和记忆,并把这些都呈现于当代。
The firm Enneadclad the Utah Natural History Museum in Salt Lake City in copper and zinc,ores that have been mined in the area for 150 yearsand that also camouflage the building against the ochre hillsso that you have a natural history museumthat reflects the region's natural history.And when the Chinese Pritzker Prize winner Wang Shuwas building a history museum in Ningbo,he didn't just create a wrapper for the past,he built memory right into the wallsby using brick and stones and shinglessalvaged from villages that had been demolished.
Ennead公司,用铜和锌包裹了位于盐湖城的,犹他自然历史博物馆,在这里,开采这些矿产的历史,已经有150年了,这也将这座建筑巧妙的,隐藏于了矿山之中,这样我们就拥有了一个真正反映了桐庐房产网 ,当地自然历史的自然历史博物馆,当中国建筑师王澍,(普利茨克奖获得者),在宁波建造一个历史博物馆的时候,他将从村庄废墟中,存留下来的砖石木瓦,加入到了外墙当中,他不仅仅是包装了历史,也以此将回忆注入了建筑当中。
Now, architects can use glassin equally lyrical and inventive ways.Here in New York, two buildings,one by Jean Nouvel and this one by Frank Gehryface off across West 19th Street,and the play of reflections that they toss back and forthis like a symphony in light.But when a city defaults to glassas it grows,it becomes a hall of mirrors,disquieting and cold.
现今的建筑师们可以用同样抒情九鼎记续集 ,而富有创造性的方式去使用玻璃,在这里,纽约,有两栋楼,一栋是Jean,Nouvel设计的,图中的这个则是Frank,Gehry的作品,它们面朝西十九大道,而它们所创造的光与影的前后交错,就如同光世界的交响曲,但当玻璃成为一个城市的默认材料,不断地被增加用量,城市就会变成巨大的镜厅,让人感到不安,冰冷。
After all, cities are places of concentrated varietywhere the world's cultures and languages and lifestylescome together and mingle.So rather than encase all that varietyand diversity in buildings of crushing sameness,we should have an architecture that honors the full range of the urban experience.
毕竟城市理应是一个充满了,多样的世界文化,语言和生活方式的,大熔炉,所以我们不应该将这些多样性,局限在这一模一样的外表下,我们应该让建筑充分反映,丰富多彩的城市体验。
Thank you.(Applause)
谢谢大家(掌声)

TAGS: